Historical Timeline

Historical Timeline

CANAANITE (BRONZE) AGE  – 3200-1200 BCE

1900-1750 – Age of the Patriarchs – Abraham and Sarah; Isaac and Rebecca; Jacob, Leah and Rachel; Joseph in Egypt

1750-1550 – Hyksos  – Hyksos invade and rule Egypt

1550 – 1300 – El-Amarna Period – Influence of Egyptian, Mycenean, Cypriot and Hittite Culture

1250-1200 – The Exodus of B’nai Yisrael – Law given at Mount Sinai; Wandering in the wilderness; Israelite conquest of the Promised Land under Joshua

ISRAELITE (IRON) AGE – 1200-587 BCE

1200 – 1020  – Period of the Judges – Philistines or Sea Peoples invade

1050 – 910 – Prophet and Judge Shmuel

1030 – 1010 – Saul

1020 – 930 – The United Monarchy – Saul organizes state; David establishes Jerusalem as the capital; Solomon builds First Temple

1010 – 970  – David makes Jerusalem his capital

970 – 931 – Solomon builds the Temple

930 – 722 – The Divided Monarchy – Ten northern tribes form the Kingdom of Israel and are distinct from the two remaining tribes, which form the Kingdom of Judah; Period ends with the fall of the Kingdom Israel to Assyria

750 – 725 – Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah

722 – 586 – Judah Stands Alone – Hezekiah constructs Broad Wall and Siloam Tunnel; Period of Classical Prophets

600 – 580 – Prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel

596 – Fall of Judah – Babylonians destroy Jerusalem and Temple; Jews exiled by the waters of Babylon

550  – Prophet “Second Isaiah”

 

SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD – 536 BCE – 70 CE

536 – 333 BCE Persian Rule – New Persian empire defeats Babylonians; Cyrus the Great allows exiles to return to Judea; Second Temple completed in 515; Religious reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah.

538 – Edict of Cyrus

520 – 515 – Second Temple rebuilt

520 – Prophet Haggai

332 – 63 BCE Hellenistic Rule – Alexander the Great conquers; War of liberation led by Maccabees in 167; Rule of Hasmonean dynasty

333 – Alexander the Great conquers

230 – 146 – Coming of Rome to the eastern Mediterranean

168 – 63 – Jewish Maccabean revolt and Hasmonean rule

63 BCE – 70 CE – Roman rule – Herod the Great enlarges Second Temple; First Jewish revolt begins in 66 CE and leads to the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 CE.

63 BCE – Roman Emperor Pompey annexes Judea

37BCE – 4 CE – Herod the Great

6 CE – Rome establishes direct rule of prefects in Judea

 

LATE ROMAN RULE – 70 – 324 CE

73 – Establishment of Jewish center for study at Yavneh by Yohanan ben Zakkai, beginning of Rabbinic ordination

120 – 135 – Rabbi Akiva active in consolidating Rabbinic Judaism

132 – 135 Revolt – Last Jewish revolt led by Shimon Bar Kochba fails; Hadrian replaces Jerusalem with pagan city Aelia Capitolina and renames Israel Palistine.

200 – Judah Hanasi completes Mishna

 

BYZANTINE – 324 – 640

312 – Emperor Constantine

614 – Talmud completed; Persian conquest

 

EARLY ISLAMIC – 640 – 1099

Followers of Mohammed conquer, build Dome of the Rock and the El Aqsa Mosque; Ruling dynasties include Ommayad, Abbasid and Fatimid

 

CRUSADER – 1099 – 1260

Crusaders establish Latin rule; Saladin conquers in 1187, but Christian presence continues until middle of the 13th century

 

MAMALUKE – 1260 – 1517

Egyptian slave –kings restore Moslem rule

 

OTTOMAN – 1517 – 1917

1n 1539 the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent completes the current city wall of Jerusalem

 

BRITISH MANDATE – 1917 – 1948

1917 – Balfour Declaration favors Jewish State

General Allenby defeats Turks in World War I; The League of Nations gives Britain a mandate to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Mandate ends with the establishment of the State of Israel

 

ISRAEL

1948 – Birth of the State of Israel

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